The Construction of Brick Walls With Insulation and Thermal Liners
The construction of a brick wall with insulation from heat-insulating panels consists of a bearing part – masonry, the thickness of which is determined only from the conditions of strength and stability of the wall, and a heat-insulating part – foam concrete, gypsum or gypsum slag panels.
When bricking the walls, the insulation is recommended to be placed “on the slope”, leaving an air gap between the wall and the insulation with a thickness of 20-40 mm, acting as additional insulation.
In the plane of the inter-floor ceilings, the panels 4 are supported on the floor structures. The panels are attached to the brickwork with nails 7, they are hammered into the wooden plugs 6 covered in the wall 5, covered with an antiseptic. The advantage of walls with insulation from the panels is that there is no need to make internal plaster.
Walls with thermal liners consist of two brick walls: 1/2 brick each, between which ready-made low-heat-conducting blocks, called thermal liners, are laid. Every 3-5 rows between the enclosing walls, communication are carried out using steel flat wire staples or bonded rows of masonry. Thermal liners are made of effective heat-insulating materials – foam concrete, foam silicate, and others.
The advantages of such walls compared to brick-concrete are the lesser amount of moisture introduced when filling the voids in the wall, as well as the possibility of their erection in the winter.
The walls of the good masonry are erected from two walls with a thickness of 1/2 brick, interconnected by vertical brick walls – stiffness diaphragms. The wells formed in the masonry are filled with insulation.
Transverse brick walls with a thickness of 1/2 bricks are arranged at a distance of 53 to 105 cm, that is, equal to 2-4 bricks. The wells are filled with backfill, lightweight concrete or lightweight concrete inserts. To prevent backfill precipitation, which reduces the heat-shielding qualities of the wall, horizontal diaphragms with a thickness of 15 mm from a solution of the same composition as the masonry mortar are arranged through 400-500 mm along with the height of the wall. Walls of this type are erected with a thickness of 380 mm to 560 mm.
Structural Details of Brick Walls and Masonry Openings
The main structural details of brick walls are a basement, cornices, smoke and ventilation ducts.
The basement of brick walls is continuous brickwork with a height of at least 400-500 mm above ground level. The waterproofing layer is arranged according to general rules.
Cornices are made of ordinary masonry or prefabricated. Lintels over the window and wooden openings are made of precast concrete. Reinforced concrete slabs that distribute the load on two walls are laid under the ends of the floor beams, resting on walls with a thickness of 1/2 brick.
Smoke and ventilation ducts are arranged in the internal walls, which are made of solid brickwork. Concrete blocks are also used for channeling.
To install door and window frames in the masonry leave openings that overlap precast concrete, ordinary brick or wedge-shaped lintels. When arranging ordinary jumpers at the top of the opening, a formwork of boards 40-50 mm thick is installed, on which the solution is spread with a layer of up to 2 cm and reinforcement is laid (burnt steel, round 4-6 mm) at the rate of 1 rod per 1/2 brick of wall thickness.
The ends of the reinforcement should go 25 cm into the walls. When laying openings in brick walls, the wedge-shaped bridges are also arranged according to the pre-laid formwork, laying the brick on the edge from the edges to the middle of the bridge and with an inclination at the edges to form a spacer (wedge). It is allowed to install jumpers from tarred boards 5-6 cm thick, the ends of which should be deepened into the walls by 15-25 cm.
Which Brick Is Better to Choose for Walls
In this section of the article, you will find out which brick is better for walls and what are the features of masonry from different types of bricks.
How are bricks divided by purpose?
Which brick to choose for walls depends on the purpose of the material. Ordinary brick is used for internal rows of masonry or for external rows, but with subsequent plaster.
Ordinary brick may have a depressed geometric pattern on the side (for better adhesion to the stucco.
The front brick is of uniform color, has two smooth, even front surfaces “poke” and “spoons”. It is usually hollow, which makes the wall of such a brick warm.
Facing includes a textured brick with a relief pattern on the front surface. A shaped, or figured, the profile is intended for the masonry of complex shapes: arches, pillars, etc.
What are the features of working with various types of bricks?
Hollow bricks have less mass and, as a result, less load on the foundation. But when laying, the holes may become clogged with the solution, and it will become more “cold”. To avoid this, you need to take a brick with voids of smaller diameter and a more viscous mortar. Brick can be made even more “warm” due to internal porosity. Such a brick is called porous. To save time and money, it is better to buy not one ordinary brick, but one and a half. But the color can be chosen to taste – this does not affect the quality of the brick.
How to make porous brick?
To reduce the mass of bricks, as well as to increase its heat-shielding properties, sawdust is added to the raw material mass during the production process, which burns out during firing and creates micropores. Brick becomes more “warm” due to the internal porosity of the material. Compared with ordinary brick, porous brick has a lower density, which makes it better in terms of heat and sound insulation. In addition to bricks, porous stones are also produced (including large-sized -510x260x219mm), designed for laying external walls.